Pharaoh, pharaohs: the top 8 most famous kings of Egypt
This article covers the top 8 most famous rulers of Egypt. These kings or pharaohs come from various dynasties and each played a prominent role in the history of Egypt. From Pharaoh Ramses II to Cleopatra, from Menes to Thut Moses, from Tutankhamun to Cheops: you can read it in this list! The following list of ten famous rulers from the history from Egypt is in chronological order, starting with Pharaoh Menes.
Menes, also known as Meni or Men, is known as Pharaoh made Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt into one empire. There is much uncertainty about the life of Menes: experts do not agree whether Menes is the same person as Pharaoh Narmer (last ruler of "dynasty 0") or Pharaoh Hor-Aha (first king of the 1st dynasty). Menes probably lived in the decades before 3000 BC.
Cheops, second ruler of the fourth dynasty at the time of the Old Empire, lived around 2600 BC. His name is mainly connected with the construction of the Great Pyramid (from Giza) or Pyramid of Cheops, which is still the last preserved wonder of the world today. Cheops is also referred to as Chufu or Choefoe.
Hatshepsut, previously the wife of Pharaoh Thutmozes II, succeeded her husband as Pharaoh of Egypt in the fifteenth century BC. When one of the few female Pharaohs reigned Hatshepsut more than 20 years and, moreover, proved capable of using propaganda and restoring trade relations. Her stepson and later successor Thutmose III, perhaps because of the difficult acceptance of female pharaohs in conservative Egypt, had many references to Hatshepsut deleted from the annals (although some Egyptologists believe that the later Amenhotep III was also responsible for this). Hatshepsut, like other famous pharaohs such as Thut Moses, Akhenaten, and Tutankhamun, was part of the 18th Dynasty at the time of the New Empire.
Thut Moses III
Thut Moses III, or Thutmosis III, was a famous ruler from the 18th Dynasty. As the pharaoh of the New Empire, Thoetmozes conducted many campaigns and conquered hundreds of cities. As a warlike, expansionist pharaoh, Thut Moses made Egypt a world power, an achievement that nowadays gives him the nickname "Napoleon of Egypt". Much is unknown about Thutmose's relationship with stepmother Hatshepsut, who ruled over him for decades: was there a question of envy and a difficult relationship, or a practical mutual bond that, after Hatshepsut's death, passed smoothly into a new reign?
Akhenaten (circa 1350-1330 BC) is a famous ruler from the 18th Dynasty for several reasons. Akhenaten, as a critic of Egyptian polytheism, probably introduced monotheism. Egyptian polygodism was abolished, with the divine sun disk Aton being worshiped as the only god. Pharaoh Akhenaton, also known as Amenhotep IV, worked against the hitherto influential priests of Amon with this decision. According to some Egyptologists, this development has led to a religiously inspired murder that ended Akhenaten's life. The famous wife of Akhenaten was Nefertiti or Nefertete, whose famous bust is in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin.
Tutankhamun, previously called Tutankhaton (after the worship of Aton under Akhenaten), was around 1330 BC pharaoh of Egypt for about ten years. Under this son of Akhenaten, Egypt returned to the worship of the traditional gods, including supreme god Amon. About the causes of the relatively early death of Tutankhamun (19 years old) is still much unclear. Tutankhamun is especially known for the discovery of his virtually intact grave in 1922, by the British archaeologist Howard Carter (1874-1939). This grave is also known as grave DK 62 in the Valley of the Kings.
Ramses II was Pharaoh of Egypt in the thirteenth century BC and is also known as Ramses the Great. As the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty in the New Empire, it says Ramses II known as a successful general and the commissioner of several colossal monuments. At the beginning of his reign, Ramses led the famous Battle of Kadesh (Kadesh) against the Hittites. Although the battle ended in a draw at most, the pharaoh deliberately declared himself the winner. Ramses, of whom Nefertari was a famous woman, is also known for the construction of colossal temple complexes such as Abu Simbel (moved in the 1960s to higher ground because of the rising water of the Nassermeer) and the Ramesseum. Ramses II ruled for more than 65 years and was probably about ninety years old: an exceptional age for that time.
Cleopatra VII, or Cleopatra VII Philopator, was queen of ancient Egypt, who because of her fame is also simply referred to as "Cleopatra". Cleopatra, the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, is particularly known for her relationships with Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius, which resulted in 1 and 3 children respectively. Cleopatra poisoned himself in 30 BC with the help of one or more snakes, after being rejected by Antonius' competitor Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
Video: Five Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs (April 2020).
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